Wednesday, 17 August 2011


The Port with a large number of shipping containers and the ocean visible in the background


Singapore consists of 63 islands, including the main island, widely known as Singapore Island but also as Pulau Ujong. There are two man-made connections to Johor, Malaysia: the Johor–Singapore Causeway in the north, and the Tuas Second Link in the
west. Jurong Island,Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin and Sentosa are the largest of Singapore's smaller islands. The highest natural point is Bukit Timah Hill at 166 m (545 ft).
There are ongoing land reclamation projects, which have increased Singapore's land area from 581.5 km2 (224.5 sq mi) in the 1960s to 704 km2 (272 sq mi) today; it may grow by another 100 km2 (40 sq mi) by 2030. Some projects involve merging smaller islands through land reclamation to form larger, more functional islands, as with Jurong Island. About 23% of Singapore's land area consists of forest and nature reserves. Urbanisation has eliminated most primary rainforest, with Bukit Timah Nature Reserve the only significant remaining forest.
Map showing Singapore's island and the territories belonging Singapore and its neighbours
Singapore has a steamy rainforest type of weather with no individual seasons, Consistent temperature and pressure, high humidity, and plentiful rainfall. Temperatures usually range from 23 to 32 °C (73 to 90 °F). Relative humidity averages around 79% in the morning and 73% in the afternoon. April and May are the hottest months, with the wetter monsoon season from November to January. From July to October, there is often haze caused by bush fires in neighbouring Indonesia. Although Singapore does not observe daylight saving time, it follows time zone GMT+8, one hour ahead of its geographical location.


Singapore (i/ˈsɪŋəpɔː(r)/), formally the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian outpost off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by theStraits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to its south. The country is highly urbanised with very little primary rainforest remaining, although more land is being created for development through land reclamation.

Singapore had been a part of various local empires since it was first inhabited in the second century AD. It hosted a trading post of the East India Company in 1819 with permission from the Sultanate of Johor. The British obtained sovereignty over the island in 1824 and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Singapore was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and reverted to British rule after the war. It became internally self-governing in 1959. Singapore united with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963 and became a fully independent state two years later after separation from Malaysia. Since then it has had a massive increase in wealth, and is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy heavily depends on the industry and service sectors. Singapore is a world leader in several areas, it is the world's fourth leading financial centre, the world's second biggest casino gambling market, the world's top three oil refining centre. The port of Singapore is one of the five busiest ports in the world. The country is home to more US dollar millionaire households per capita than any other country. The World Bank notes Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business.

Singapore is a parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government. The People's Action Party(PAP) has won every ballot vote since the British grant of internal self-government in 1959. The legal system of Singapore has its foundations in the English common law system, but modifications have been made to it over the years, such as the removal of trial by jury. The PAP's popular image is that of a strong, experienced and highly qualified government, backed by a skilled Civil Service and an education system with an emphasis on achievement and meritocracy; but it is perceived by some voters, opposition critics and international observers as being authoritarian and too restrictive on individual freedom.

Some 5 million people live in Singapore, of whom 2.91 million were born locally. Most are of Chinese, Malay or Indian descent. There are four official languages: English, Chinese, Malay and Tamil. One of the five founding members of the Association of South East Asian Nations, Singapore also hosts the APEC Secretariat, and is a member of the East Asia Summit, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the Commonwealth.


The Singaporean armed is the most superior in Southeast Asia. It comprises the Army, Navy, and Air Force. It is seen as the sponsor of the country's sovereignty The nation's philosophy of defense is one of mediation and avoidance This principle translates into the civilization, involving all people in the country's defense. The government spends 4.9% of its GDP on the armed

At the time of sovereignty, Singapore had two infantry regiments commanded by British officers. This force was painstaking too small to provide successful security to the new country and so the development of the military became a main concern. Plans such as jungle fighting were learned to allow the army to fight outside Singapore's borders, and the army obtained equipment such as tanks before its neighbours, often from Israel, and became a highly efficient force.

The SAF is being urban to respond to a wide range of issues, in both conventional and unconventional warfare. The Defence Science and Technology Agency is responsible for procuring resources for the military. The geographic restrictions of Singapore mean that the SAF must plan to completely repulse an assault, as they can not fall back and re-group. The small inhabitants have also precious the way the SAF has been designed, with a small vigorous force but a large number of reserves.
A Singapore Air Force F-15SG
Singapore has a draft which extends to all healthy males at the age of 18, apart from to those who have a illegal record, or can show that their loss would bring hardships to their families. In addition, males who have yet to complete pre-university education or are awarded the Public Service Commission scholarship can opt to defer their draft. Though not required to perform military service, the number of women in the Singapore Armed Forces has been rising, with women allowed since 1989 to fill military vocations formerly reserved for men. Before introduction into a specific bough of the armed forces, recruits undergo at least 9 weeks of basic military teaching.

Because of the lack of open land on the main island, training connecting activities such as live firing and amphibious landings is often carried out on smaller islands, normally barred to civilian access. This also avoids risk to the main island and the city. However, large-scale drills are considered too dangerous to be performed in the area, and since 1975 have been performed in Taiwan, although training is held in about a dozen other countries. Military exercises are generally held with foreign forces once or twice per week.

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